Precast concrete buildings - Elematic precast technology Alternative Seismic Design of Precast Concrete Diaphragms and Qualification of Precast Concrete Diaphragm Connectors--AC Membrane Roof-covering Systems --AC Foam Plastic Sheathing Panels Used as Weather-resistive Barriers--AC Power-actuated Fasteners Driven into Concrete, Steel and Masonry Elements--AC Fire-retardant-treated Wood--AC Precast Building Structures. Prefabricated buildings save time and labor on site. In select regions, we offer precast concrete building components, modular buildings for correctional facilities and data centers, as well as fully-outfitted structures for communications and utility equipment, mission-critical and security equipment, municipal buildings, and more. The precast concrete drainage channel is also temperature, frost and UV-resistant, reducing contraction and expansion. Strength and Beauty NDS FILCOTEN fiber-reinforced concrete trench drain can withstand high load capacities making it an ideal choice for .

These versatile precast concrete pieces can be designed to mimic brick, stone or wood. Underground vaults or mausoleums require watertight structures that withstand natural forces for extended periods of time. Storage of hazardous material, whether short-term or long-term, is an increasingly important environmental issue, calling for containers that not only seal in the materials, but are strong enough to stand up to natural disasters or terrorist attacks.

Floating docks, underwater infrastructure, decking, railings, and a host of amenities are among the uses of precast along the waterfront. When designed with heavy weight in mind, precast products counteract the buoyant forces of water significantly better than most materials. This technique is often employed in concrete beams, columns, spandrels, single and double tees, wall panels, segmental bridge units, bulb-tee girders, I-beam girders, and others.

Many projects find that prestressed concrete provides the lowest overall cost, considering production and lifetime maintenance. The precast concrete double-wall panel has been in use in Europe for decades.

The original double-wall design consisted of two wythes of reinforced concrete separated by an interior void, held together with embedded steel trusses. With recent concerns about energy use, it is recognized that using steel trusses creates a "thermal bridge" that degrades thermal performance. Also, since steel does not have the same thermal expansion coefficient as concrete, as the wall heats and cools any steel that is not embedded in the concrete can create thermal stresses that cause cracking and spalling.

To achieve better thermal performance, insulation was added in the void, and in many applications today the steel trusses have been replaced by composite fibreglass, plastic, etc. These systems, which are specially developed for this purpose, also eliminate the differential thermal expansion problem.

Using continuous insulation and modern composite connection systems, R-values up to R The overall thickness of sandwich wall panels in commercial applications is typically 8 inches, but their designs are often customized to the application.

The interior and exterior wythes of concrete are held together through the insulation with some form of connecting system that is able to provide the needed structural integrity. Sandwich wall panels can be fabricated to the length and width desired, within practical limits Warrens Utility Buildings Candler Nc Joint dictated by the fabrication system, the stresses of lifting and handling, and shipping constraints.

Panels of 9-foot clear height are common, but heights up to 12 feet can be found. The fabrication process for precast concrete sandwich wall panels allows them to be produced with finished surfaces on both sides.

Such finishes can be very smooth, with the surfaces painted, stained, or left natural; for interior surfaces, the finish is comparable to drywall in smoothness and can be finished using the same prime and paint procedure as is common for conventional drywall construction.

Colors and textures can provide the appearance of brick, stone, wood, or other patterns through the use of reusable formliners , or, in the most sophisticated applications, actual brick, stone, glass, or other materials can be cast into the concrete surface.

Window and door openings are cast into the walls at the manufacturing plant as part of the fabrication process. In many applications, electrical and telecommunications conduit and boxes are cast directly into the panels in the specified locations. In some applications, utilities, plumbing and even heating components have been cast into the panels to reduce on-site construction time.

The carpenters, electricians and plumbers do need to make some slight adjustments when first becoming familiar with some of the unique aspects of the wall panels. However, they still perform most of their job duties in the manner to which they are accustomed.

Precast concrete sandwich wall panels have been used on virtually every type of building, including schools, office buildings, apartment buildings, townhouses, condominiums, hotels, motels, dormitories, and single-family homes. Although typically considered part of a building's enclosure or "envelope," they can be designed to also serve as part of the building's structural system, eliminating the need for beams and columns on the building perimeter.

Besides their energy efficiency and aesthetic versatility, they also provide excellent noise attenuation, outstanding durability resistant to rot, mold, etc. In addition to the good insulation properties, sandwich panels require fewer work phases to complete.

Compared to double-walls, for example, which have to be insulated and filled with concrete on site, sandwich panels require much less labor and scaffolding. The precast concrete industry is largely dominated by Government initiated projects for infrastructural development. However, these are also being extensively used for residential low and high rise and commercial constructions because of their various favourable attributes. The efficiency, durability, ease, cost effectiveness, and sustainable properties [ citation needed ] of these products have brought a revolutionary shift in the time consumed in construction of any structure.

Construction industry is a huge energy consuming industry, and precast concrete products are and will continue to be more energy efficient than its counterparts.

The wide range of designs, colours, and structural options that these products provide is also making it a favourable choice for its consumers. Many state and federal transportation projects in the United States require precast concrete suppliers to be certified by either the Architectural Precast Association, National Precast Concrete Association or Precast Prestressed Concrete Institute.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article's lead section contains information that is not included elsewhere in the Precast Concrete Utility Buildings Analysis article. If the information is appropriate for the lead of the article, this information should also be included in the body of the article.

February Learn how and when to remove this template message. Fundamentals of building construction materials and methods. Concrete Issues. A technique for making panels with exposed aggregates e. Compared to the washed panels with visible aggregates, flat panels were more vulnerable to water infiltration, pollution, and mechanical damage, among other things.

A way to overcome such vulnerabilities was to use a very compact type of concrete, like the one developed by the Dutch company Schokbeton. This setup ensured a rapid and effective compaction and yielded exceptionally durable, stiff, and slender and therefore economical elements. The production process guaranteed a flawless surface. If desired, the elements could receive an extra surface treatment in the factory, e. Because of the need for heavy machinery, this technique was out of reach for many small contactors.

Nevertheless, they could order elements from the Dutch Schokbeton factory in Zwijndrecht. In Belgium, Schokbeton was used from the early s onwards: the guaranteed durability and high quality finish, together with a reasonable price, convinced many architects to use it for cladding panels as well as for window frames, stairs, parapets, etc.

It was used in some of the large social housing projects of the s in Belgium, e. The high-rise building block in Ganshoren, commissioned by the housing company Les villas de Ganshoren, also used Schokbeton for large precast frames that enclose the windows architects Gaston Brunfaut and Albert Van den Bossche, Architectural precast concrete, popular from the s onwards, combined the structural, functional, aesthetic and financial advantages of concrete in one element.

It could be designed in the most diverse ways: both flat panels and curved forms were possible, while surfaces could be textured e. Especially in office buildings, the formal and three-dimensional possibilities of architectural precast concrete were exploited. In housing projects, on the other hand, where the need for prestige was less and budgets often much smaller, it was used less frequent and designers chose architectural precast concrete less for its formal possibilities than for aesthetic surface finishes.

The most common types of architectural precast concrete elements in housing were frames, solid panels, and parapets. The precast elements often had standardized dimensions: a module of 30 cm was mainly used for widths; for heights, usually the elements were dimensioned from floor to floor.

The joints and connections were constructed in many different ways. For example, the elements could be fixed by means of protruding reinforcement bars, after which the joint was filled with in situ concrete. The UACB recommended Thiokol for watertight joints in a technical handbook on architectural precast concrete. The joints were typically between 6 and 18 mm wide.

The panels, complete with pre-cut door and window openings and sometimes also integrated ducts and pipes, were increasingly composed of different layers: not just an extra finishing layer on the outside, but also an inner cavity, sometimes filled with an insulation material. Especially after the oil crisis, the latter option was selected more frequently. A reason for the rise of precast concrete panels was the support of the government: the Ministry of Housing and the public service housing societies encouraged the use of precast concrete to reduce construction time and for financial benefits.

From , several small-scale building projects of some 20 to 40 houses were constructed with precast concrete. In a housing complex was constructed in Orcq, comprised of 20 houses with loadbearing precast concrete walls with inlaid brickwork. The panels were fabricated by the French company Camus-Nord, which had developed a special production line for low-rise housing.

In most cases, the panels included bricks inlaid on the exterior side. This was created by arranging bricks at the bottom of the precasting moulds, which were held in place by the layer of concrete that covered them. More labour-intensive and costly than plain concrete panels, this precast brickwork allowed a novel construction technology to present a traditional appearance. Various types of precast sandwich panels were shown in the model home expositions held in Moeskroen, Limal, and Heist from Much importance was attached to the technical quality of the building systems.

The bids were studied in detail beforehand, and several inspections and measurements were made during and after the construction process. The model home expositions proved to be a perfect means to evaluate the variety of precast concrete sandwich panels available in the market at that time.

At the Moescroen exposition, which was actually organized by the Union of Contractors-System Builders instead of a housing society, nine contracting companies built 20 houses in total. Fourteen of these were constructed with loadbearing cavity walls in precast concrete. These cavity walls had an inner leaf in concrete in Argex concrete or regular concrete, sometimes finished with plaster , while the outer walls were either a half brick wall or in concrete regular concrete or micro concrete, and finished with a brick inlay, plaster rendering, visible white stone aggregates, or the imprint of the textured mould.

Between the inner and outer leaf was a ventilated or insulated cavity. The model home exposition in Limal was larger houses built by 18 firms, using 63 different types or systems , yet again more than half of the houses were constructed with loadbearing precast concrete walls.

There were single walls in lightweight Ytong or Argex concrete, sometimes completed with a layer of polystyrene insulation and gypsum board , yet most of the contractors used cavity walls.

In the case of cavity walls, the materials were more or less the same as in the houses in Moeskroen: regular concrete or Argex concrete was used for the inner leaf; the core consisted of polystyrene or other insulation materials; the outer leaf was in either masonry or concrete with brick inlay, washed flint, or other exposed aggregates.

Likewise in Heist, which featured houses built by eight companies, cavity walls of loadbearing precast concrete with an inner core of insulation were the dominant type. In addition to the building companies that took part in the model home expositions e. Most of these manufacturers specialized in diversity, meaning that they all tried to offer the broadest possible range of products, instead of focusing on one particular style or element.

The catalogue shows that most companies produced different types of panels, both loadbearing and non-loadbearing, which came as single wall elements or sandwich elements, with or without insulation in between layers. The four main surface options were smooth, washed, acid-scoured, and sandblasted concrete. Fillers and additives like plasticizers, bond accelerators or retarders, air entraining agents, coloured pigments, glass fibres, etc.

By small variations in the materials, forms, proportions, and techniques, innumerable types of concrete panels were produced. A seemingly infinite number of choices was something that the industry explicitly featured in its advertising. The company Antwerpse Machinesteenbakkerijen holds a special position in this list because it specialized in brick manufacture rather than concrete.

Nevertheless, the company produced a composite panel Pandal combining bricks and concrete. The panel consisted of a pre-stressed concrete outer layer and an inner core of masonry blocks. In particular, Augustus Welby Pugin wrote that "there should be no features about a building which are not necessary for convenience, construction, or propriety" and "all ornament should consist of enrichment of the essential construction of the building".

The debate about functionalism and aesthetics is often framed as a mutually exclusive choice, when in fact there are architects, like Will Bruder , James Polshek and Ken Yeang , who attempt to satisfy all three Vitruvian goals.

In the wake of World War I , an international functionalist architecture movement emerged as part of the wave of Modernism. The ideas were largely inspired by the need to build a new and better world for the people, as broadly and strongly expressed by the social and political movements of Europe after the extremely devastating world war. In this respect, functionalist architecture is often linked with the ideas of socialism and modern humanism.

A new slight addition to this new wave of functionalism was that not only should buildings and houses be designed around the purpose of functionality, architecture should also be used as a means to physically create a better world and a better life for people in the broadest sense.

This new functionalist architecture had the strongest impact in Czechoslovakia , Germany , Poland , [2] the USSR and the Netherlands , and from the s also in Scandinavia and Finland.

In , Chicago architect Louis Sullivan coined the phrase Form follows function. However, this aphorism does not relate to a contemporary understanding of the term 'function' as utility or the satisfaction of user needs; it was instead based in metaphysics, as the expression of organic essence and could be paraphrased as meaning 'destiny'.

In the mids, functionalism began to be discussed as an aesthetic approach rather than a matter of design integrity use. The idea of functionalism was conflated with a lack of ornamentation, which is a different matter. It became a pejorative term associated with the baldest and most brutal ways to cover space, like cheap commercial buildings and sheds, then finally used, for example in academic criticism of Buckminster Fuller 's geodesic domes , simply as a synonym for 'gauche'.

For 70 years the influential American architect Philip Johnson held that the profession has no functional responsibility whatsoever, and this is one of the many views today.

The position of postmodern architect Peter Eisenman is based on a user-hostile theoretical basis and even more extreme: "I don't do function. Popular notions of modern architecture are heavily influenced by the work of the Franco-Swiss architect Le Corbusier and the German architect Mies van der Rohe.

Both were functionalists at least to the extent that their buildings were radical simplifications of previous styles.

In , Mies van der Rohe was working in Weimar Germany, and had begun his career of producing radically simplified, lovingly detailed structures that achieved Sullivan's goal of inherent architectural beauty. Le Corbusier famously said "a house is a machine for living in"; his book Vers une architecture was, and still is, very influential, and his early built work such Precast Utility Buildings 100 as the Villa Savoye in Poissy , France , is thought of as prototypically function.

Numerous villas, apartment buildings and interiors, factories, office blocks and department stores can be found in the functionalist style throughout the country, which industrialised rapidly in the early 20th century while embracing the Bauhaus -style architecture that was emerging concurrently in Germany.

Brno Crematorium [8] Brno , , Ernst Wiesner. Hotel Avion Brno , , Bohuslav Fuchs. Zlin , Czech Republic, factory town built by the Bata shoe company. In Scandinavia and Finland, the international movement and ideas of modernist architecture became widely known among architects at the Stockholm Exhibition , under the guidance of director and Swedish architect Gunnar Asplund.

Enthusiastic architects collected their ideas and inspirations in the manifesto acceptera and in the years thereafter, a functionalist architecture emerged throughout Scandinavia. The genre involves some peculiar features unique to Scandinavia and it is often referred to as "funkis", to distinguish it from functionalism in general. Some of the common features are flat roofing, stuccoed walls, architectural glazing and well-lit rooms, an industrial expression and nautical-inspired details, including round windows.

These needs became another signature of the Nordic version of functionalist architecture, in particular in buildings from the s, and carried over into modernist architecture when industrial serial production became much more prevalent after World War II.

As most architectural styles, Nordic funkis was international in its scope and several architects designed Nordic funkis buildings throughout the region. Some of the most active architects working internationally with this style, includes Edvard Heiberg , Arne Jacobsen and Alvar Aalto.

Nordic funkis features prominently in Scandinavian urban architecture, as the need for urban housing and new institutions for the growing welfare states exploded after World War II.

Funkis had its heyday in the s and s, but functionalist architecture continued to be built long into the s. These later structures, however, tend to be categorized as modernism in a Nordic context. Vilhelm Lauritzen , Arne Jacobsen and C.

In Denmark, bricks were largely preferred over reinforced concrete as construction material, and this included funkis buildings. Apart from institutions and apartment blocks, more than , single-family funkis houses were built in the years However, the truly dedicated funkis design was often approached with caution.

Many residential buildings only included some signature funkis elements such as round windows, corner windows or architectural glazing to signal modernity while not provoking conservative traditionalists too much. This branch of restrained approach to the funkis design created the Danish version of the bungalow building. The largest functionalist complex in the Nordic countries is the 30,sq. Bellavista , Klampenborg. The Standard , Copenhagen. Knippelsbro bridge , Copenhagen.

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