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Call peacockwoodcraft. Bunkie , shed , Log Cabins , Special Ontario. The Aloha Airlines Flight incident, involving a Boeing that suffered catastrophic cabin failure mid-flight, was primarily caused by its continued operation despite having accumulated more than twice the number of flight cycles that the airframe was designed to endure. For increased passenger comfort, several modern airliners, such as the Boeing Dreamliner and the Airbus A XWB , feature reduced operating cabin altitudes as well as greater humidity levels; the use of composite airframes has aided the adoption of such comfort-maximising practices.

Pressurization of the cargo hold is also required to prevent damage to pressure-sensitive goods that might leak, expand, burst or be crushed on re-pressurization. The pressure inside the cabin is technically referred to as the equivalent effective cabin altitude or more commonly as the cabin altitude. This is defined as the equivalent altitude above mean sea level having the same atmospheric pressure according to a standard atmospheric model such as the International Standard Atmosphere.

Thus a cabin altitude of zero would have the pressure found at mean sea level, which is taken to be In airliners , cabin altitude during flight is kept above sea level in order to reduce stress on the pressurized part of the fuselage ; this stress is proportional to the difference in pressure inside and outside the cabin.

This cabin altitude is maintained while the aircraft is cruising at its maximum altitude and then reduced gradually during descent until the cabin pressure matches the ambient air pressure at the destination. Scuba divers flying within the "no fly" period after a dive are at risk of decompression sickness because the accumulated nitrogen in their bodies can form bubbles when exposed to reduced cabin pressure.

A design goal for many, but not all, newer aircraft is to provide a lower cabin altitude than older designs. This can be beneficial for passenger comfort. This allows the A to operate at a higher altitude than other newly designed civilian aircraft. Care must also be taken to avoid decompression sickness when cosmonauts perform extravehicular activity , as current soft space suits are pressurized with pure oxygen at relatively low pressure in order to provide reasonable flexibility.

By contrast, the United States used a pure oxygen atmosphere for its Mercury , Gemini , and Apollo spacecraft , mainly in order to avoid decompression sickness. This allowed for a lighter space vehicle design. Before launch, the pressure was kept at slightly higher than sea level at a constant 5. However, the high pressure pure oxygen atmosphere proved to be a fatal fire hazard in Apollo, contributing to the deaths of the entire crew of Apollo 1 during a ground test.

After the Apollo program , the United States used standard air-like [ vague ] cabin atmospheres for Skylab , [27] the Space Shuttle orbiter , and the International Space Station. Pressurization is achieved by the design of an airtight fuselage engineered to be pressurized with a source of compressed air and controlled by an environmental control system ECS.

The most common source of compressed air for pressurization is bleed air extracted from the compressor stage of a gas turbine engine, from a low or intermediate stage and also from an additional high stage; the exact stage can vary depending on engine type.

The control and selection of high or low bleed sources is fully automatic and is governed by the needs of various pneumatic systems at various stages of flight. The part of the bleed air that is directed to the ECS is then expanded to bring it to cabin pressure, which cools it. A final, suitable temperature is then achieved by adding back heat from the hot compressed air via a heat exchanger and air cycle machine known as a PAC Pressurization and Air Conditioning system.

In some larger airliners, hot trim air can be added downstream of air conditioned air coming from the packs if it is needed to warm a section of the cabin that is colder than others. At least two engines provide compressed bleed air for all the plane's pneumatic systems, to provide full redundancy.

Compressed air is also obtained from the auxiliary power unit APU , if fitted, in the event of an emergency and for cabin air supply on the ground before the main engines are started. Most modern commercial aircraft today have fully redundant, duplicated electronic controllers for maintaining pressurization along with a manual back-up control system.

All exhaust air is dumped to atmosphere via an outflow valve, usually at the rear of the fuselage. This valve controls the cabin pressure and also acts as a safety relief valve, in addition to other safety relief valves.

If the automatic pressure controllers fail, the pilot can manually control the cabin pressure valve, according to the backup emergency procedure checklist. The automatic controller normally maintains the proper cabin pressure altitude by constantly adjusting the outflow valve position so that the cabin altitude is as low as practical without exceeding the maximum pressure differential limit on the fuselage.

Some aircraft, such as the Boeing Dreamliner , have re-introduced electric compressors previously used on piston-engined airliners to provide pressurization.

It does, however, remove the danger of chemical contamination of the cabin , simplify engine design, avert the need to run high pressure pipework around the aircraft, and provide greater design flexibility. Failures range from sudden, catastrophic loss of airframe integrity explosive decompression to slow leaks or equipment malfunctions that allow cabin pressure to drop.

Without emergency oxygen, hypoxia may lead to loss of consciousness and a subsequent loss of control of the aircraft. Modern airliners include a pressurized pure oxygen tank in the cockpit, giving the pilots more time to bring the aircraft to a safe altitude.

The time of useful consciousness varies according to altitude. As the pressure falls the cabin air temperature may also plummet to the ambient outside temperature with a danger of hypothermia or frostbite. For airliners that need to fly over terrain that does not allow reaching the safe altitude within a minimum of Log Cabins Near Forbidden Corner Zip 30 minutes, pressurized oxygen bottles are mandatory since the chemical oxygen generators fitted to most planes cannot supply sufficient oxygen.

In jet fighter aircraft, the small size of the cockpit means that any decompression will be very rapid and would not allow the pilot time to put on an oxygen mask. Therefore, fighter jet pilots and aircrew are required to wear oxygen masks at all times. On June 30, , the crew of Soyuz 11 , Soviet cosmonauts Georgy Dobrovolsky , Vladislav Volkov , and Viktor Patsayev were killed after the cabin vent valve accidentally opened before atmospheric re-entry.

In the late s, attempts were being made to achieve higher and higher altitudes. John A. In , a Wright-Dayton USD-9A reconnaissance biplane was modified with the addition of a completely enclosed air-tight chamber that could be pressurized with air forced into it by small external turbines.

McCready, who discovered that the turbine was forcing air into the chamber faster than the small release valve provided could release it. Harrold Harris, making it the world's first flight by a pressurized aircraft. The first airliner with a pressurized cabin was the Boeing Stratoliner , built in , prior to World War II , though only ten were produced.

The 's "pressure compartment was from the nose of the aircraft to a pressure bulkhead in the aft just forward of the horizontal stabilizer. World War II was a catalyst for aircraft development. Initially, the piston aircraft of World War II, though they often flew at very high altitudes, were not Build A Log Cabin Kit Office pressurized and relied on oxygen masks. The control system for this was designed by Garrett AiResearch Manufacturing Company , drawing in part on licensing of patents held by Boeing for the Stratoliner.

Post-war piston airliners such as the Lockheed Constellation extended the technology to civilian service. The piston engined airliners generally relied on electrical compressors to provide pressurized cabin air.

Designing a pressurized fuselage to cope with that altitude range was within the engineering and metallurgical knowledge of that time. That increase in cruise altitudes required far more rigorous engineering of the fuselage, and in the beginning not all the engineering problems were fully understood.

It was the first time that a large diameter, pressurized fuselage with windows had been built and flown at this altitude. Initially, the design was very successful but two catastrophic airframe failures in resulting in the total loss of the aircraft, passengers and crew grounded what was then the entire world jet airliner fleet. Extensive investigation and groundbreaking engineering analysis of the wreckage led to a number of very significant engineering advances that solved the basic problems of pressurized fuselage design at altitude.

The critical problem proved to be a combination of an inadequate understanding of the effect of progressive metal fatigue as the fuselage undergoes repeated stress cycles coupled with a misunderstanding of how aircraft skin stresses are redistributed around openings in the fuselage such as windows and rivet holes.

The critical engineering principles concerning metal fatigue learned from the Comet 1 program [42] were applied directly to the design of the Boeing and all subsequent jet airliners. For example, detailed routine inspection processes were introduced, in addition to thorough visual inspections of the outer skin, mandatory structural sampling was routinely conducted by operators; the need to inspect areas not easily viewable by the naked eye led to the introduction of widespread radiography examination in aviation; this also had the advantage of detecting cracks and flaws too small to be seen otherwise.

Even following the Comet disasters, there were several subsequent catastrophic fatigue failures attributed to cabin pressurisation.

Perhaps the most prominent example was Aloha Airlines Flight , involving a Boeing Unusually, Concorde was provisioned with smaller cabin windows than most other commercial passenger aircraft in order to slow the rate of decompression in the event of a window seal failing.

The designed operating cabin altitude for new aircraft is falling and this is expected to reduce any remaining physiological problems. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Cabin Pressure disambiguation. Main article: Uncontrolled decompression. How Stuff Works. Archived from the original on January 15, Retrieved December 31, Baillie and A.




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