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When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use. APA American Psychological Association style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , 6 th ed.

Note: This page reflects APA 6, which is now out of date. It will remain online until , but will not be updated. The equivalent APA 7 page can be found here. Reference citations in text are covered on pages Thick Snapchat Logo Generator of the Publication Manual. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.

MLA Modern Language Association style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook 8 th ed. Both books provide extensive examples, so it's a good idea to consult them if you want to become even more familiar with MLA guidelines or if you have a particular reference question.

In MLA Style, referring to the works of others in your text is done using parenthetical citations. This method involves providing relevant source information in parentheses whenever a sentence uses a quotation or paraphrase. Usually, the simplest way to do this is to put all of the source information in parentheses at the end of the sentence i. However, as the examples below will illustrate, there are situations where it makes sense to put the parenthetical elsewhere in the sentence, or even to leave information out.

MLA format follows the author-page method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the page number s from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page. The author's name may appear either in the sentence itself or in parentheses following the quotation or paraphrase, but the page number s should always appear in the parentheses, not in the text of your sentence.

For example:. Both citations in the examples above, and Wordsworth , tell readers that the information in the sentence can be located on page of a work by an author named Wordsworth.

If readers want more information about this source, they can turn to the Works Cited page, where, under the name of Wordsworth, they would find the following information:.

These examples must correspond to an entry that begins with Burke, which will be the first thing that appears on the left-hand margin of an entry on the Works Cited page:. Burke, Kenneth. University of California Press, When a source has a corporate author, it is acceptable to use the name of the corporation followed by the page number for the in-text citation.

You should also use abbreviations e. When a source has no known author, use a shortened title of the work instead of an author name. Place the title in quotation marks if it's a short work such as an article or italicize it if it's a longer work e.

In this example, since the reader does not know the author of the article, an abbreviated title appears in the parenthetical citation, and the full title of the article appears first at the left-hand margin of its respective entry on the Works Cited page.

Thus, the writer includes the title in quotation marks as the signal phrase in the parenthetical citation in order to lead the reader directly to the source on the Works Cited page.

The Works Cited entry appears as follows:. Accessed 23 Mar. Parenthetical citations and Works Cited pages, used in conjunction, allow readers to know which sources you consulted in writing your essay, so that they can either verify your interpretation of the sources or use them in their own scholarly work.

Page numbers are always required, but additional citation information can help literary scholars, who may have a different edition of a classic work, like Marx and Engels's The Communist Manifesto. In such cases, give the page number of your edition making sure the edition is listed in your Works Cited page, of course followed by a semicolon, and then the appropriate abbreviations for volume vol.

When you cite a work that appears inside a larger source for instance, an article in a periodical or an essay in a collection , cite the author of the internal source i. For example, to cite Albert Einstein's article "A Brief Outline of the Theory of Relativity," which was published in Nature in , you might write something like this:.

See also our page on documenting periodicals in the Works Cited. Sometimes more information is necessary to identify the source from which a quotation is taken.

For instance, if two or more authors have the same last name, provide both authors' first initials or even the authors' full name if different authors share initials in your citation. Best, David, and Sharon Marcus. JSTOR, doi Franck, Caroline, et al. If you cite more than one work by an author, include a shortened title for the particular work from which you are quoting to distinguish it from the others. Put short titles of books in italics and short titles of articles in quotation marks.

Additionally, if the author's name is not mentioned in the sentence, format your citation with the author's name followed by a comma, Out Houses For Garden Logo followed by a shortened title of the work, and, when appropriate, the page number s :. When endnotes or footnotes are used, cite the source of a block quotation in the standard manner.

When in-text citations are used, the source of a block quotation should be given in parentheses at the end of the quotation. The reference should be placed after the final punctuation mark so that it will not be read as part of the quotation. No punctuation is used following the reference.

Rule: The first time you give the full citation for a work with multiple authors, list all the work's authors in the note. Charles Wilson and Geoffrey Parker, eds. Andrew John, Rowena A. Pecchenino, and Stacey L. Rule: For subsequent citations of works with two or three authors, list the last names of all authors. If more than three authors, use "et al. Wilson and Parker, Waging Peace , Bailyn, Bernard, et al. Rule: For works with a government or corporate author, the name of the organization is used in place of the author's name.

Rule: Writers need to give credit for words and ideas taken from others, even if the material used is not a direct quotation. In this case, place the note indicator immediately after the final punctuation of the sentence containing the paraphrased material. No quotation marks are required if material is paraphrased. Bloom recognizes that Whitman's influence on Stevens' work was at least as strong as Emerson's. Rule: When referring to an image that is reproduced in an appendix, place the figure number of the image in parentheses at the end of the sentence.

A full citation should be placed directly under the image where it appears in the appendix, and should be prefaced by a figure number. Monet's Meadow with Haystacks at Giverny is an excellent example of impressionist painting fig.

Claude Monet.




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