SHED LIGHT ON � ������� �� ������� c ��������� ����������� emit definition: 1. to send out a beam, noise, smell, or gas: 2. to send out a beam, noise, smell, or gas: 3. to. Learn more. Light in August is a novel by the Southern American author William www.- belongs to the Southern gothic and modernist literary genres.. Set in the author's present day, the interwar period, the novel centers on two strangers, a pregnant white woman and a man who passes as white but who believes himself to be of mixed www.- a series of flashbacks, the story reveals how these. SMS Schlesien was one of five Deutschland-class pre-dreadnought battleships built for the German Kaiserliche Marine (Imperial Navy) between and Named after the German province of Silesia, Schlesien was laid down at the Schichau-Werke shipyard in Danzig on 19 November , launched on 28 May , and commissioned on 5 May She was armed with a battery of four 28 cm (11 in.

These are electrons with opposed spins, allowing them to occupy the same molecular orbital without violating the Pauli exclusion principle much like in atoms. Different molecular orbitals have different spatial distribution of the electron density.

For instance, in bonded pairs i. By contrast, in non-bonded pairs electrons are distributed in a large volume around nuclei. If a body has more or fewer electrons than are required to balance the positive charge of the nuclei, then that object has a net electric charge. When there is an excess of electrons, the object is said to be negatively charged. When there are fewer electrons than the number of protons in nuclei, the object is said to be positively charged.

When the number of electrons and the number of protons are equal, their charges cancel each other and the object is said to be electrically neutral. A macroscopic body can develop an electric charge through rubbing, by the triboelectric effect. Independent electrons moving in vacuum are termed free electrons.

Electrons in metals also behave as if they were free. In reality the particles that are commonly termed electrons in metals and other solids are quasi-electrons� quasiparticles , which have the same electrical charge, spin, and magnetic moment as real electrons but might have a different mass. Likewise a current can be created by a changing magnetic field. These interactions are described mathematically by Maxwell's equations.

At a given temperature, each material has an electrical conductivity that determines the value of electric current when an electric potential is applied. Examples of good conductors include metals such as copper and gold, whereas glass and Teflon are poor conductors. In any dielectric material, the electrons remain bound to their respective atoms and the material behaves as an insulator.

Most semiconductors have a variable level of conductivity that lies between the extremes of conduction and insulation. The presence of such bands allows electrons in metals to behave as if they were free or delocalized electrons.

These electrons are not associated with specific atoms, so when an electric field is applied, they are free to move like a gas called Fermi gas [] through the material much like free electrons. Because of collisions between electrons and atoms, the drift velocity of electrons in a conductor is on the order of millimeters per second. Metals make relatively good conductors of heat, primarily because the delocalized electrons are free to transport thermal energy between atoms.

However, unlike electrical conductivity, the thermal conductivity of a metal is nearly independent of temperature. This is expressed mathematically by the Wiedemann�Franz law , [] which states that the ratio of thermal conductivity to the electrical conductivity is proportional to the temperature. The thermal disorder in the metallic lattice increases the electrical resistivity of the material, producing a temperature dependence for electric current.

When cooled below a point called the critical temperature , materials can undergo a phase transition in which they lose all resistivity to electric current, in a process known as superconductivity. In BCS theory , pairs of electrons called Cooper pairs have their motion coupled to nearby matter via lattice vibrations called phonons , thereby avoiding the collisions with atoms that normally create electrical resistance. Electrons inside conducting solids, which are quasi-particles themselves, when tightly confined at temperatures close to absolute zero , behave as though they had split into three other quasiparticles : spinons , orbitons and holons.

According to Einstein's theory of special relativity , as an electron's speed approaches the speed of light , from an observer's point of view its relativistic mass increases, thereby making it more and more difficult to accelerate it from within the observer's frame of reference. The speed of an electron can approach, but never reach, the speed of light in a vacuum, c. However, when relativistic electrons�that is, electrons moving at a speed close to c �are injected into a dielectric medium such as water, where the local speed of light is significantly less than c , the electrons temporarily travel faster than light in the medium.

As they interact with the medium, they generate a faint light called Cherenkov radiation. The kinetic energy K e of an electron moving with velocity v is:. For example, the Stanford linear accelerator can accelerate an electron to roughly 51 GeV. The Big Bang theory is the most widely accepted scientific theory to explain the early stages in the evolution of the Universe. These photons were sufficiently energetic that they could react with each other to form pairs of electrons and positrons.

Likewise, positron-electron pairs annihilated each other and emitted energetic photons:. An equilibrium between electrons, positrons and photons was maintained during this phase of the evolution of the Universe.

After 15 seconds had passed, however, the temperature of the universe dropped below the threshold where electron-positron formation could occur. Most of the surviving electrons and positrons annihilated each other, releasing gamma radiation that briefly reheated the universe. For reasons that remain uncertain, during the annihilation process there was an excess in the number of particles over antiparticles.

Hence, about one electron for every billion electron-positron pairs survived. This excess matched the excess of protons over antiprotons, in a condition known as baryon asymmetry , resulting in a net charge of zero for the universe. This process peaked after about five minutes. For about the next � years , the excess electrons remained too energetic to bind with atomic nuclei. Roughly one million years after the big bang, the first generation of stars began to form.

These antimatter particles immediately annihilate with electrons, releasing gamma rays. The net result is a steady reduction in the number of electrons, and a matching increase in the number of neutrons. However, the process of stellar evolution can result in the synthesis of radioactive isotopes.

Selected isotopes can subsequently undergo negative beta decay, emitting an electron and antineutrino from the nucleus. At the end of its lifetime, a star with more than about 20 solar masses can undergo gravitational collapse to form a black hole. However, quantum mechanical effects are believed to potentially allow the emission of Hawking radiation at this distance.

Electrons and positrons are thought to be created at the event horizon of these stellar remnants. When a pair of virtual particles such as an electron and positron is created in the vicinity of the event horizon, random spatial positioning might result in one of them to appear on the exterior; this process is called quantum tunnelling.

The gravitational potential of the black hole can then supply the energy that transforms this virtual particle into a real particle, allowing it to radiate away into space. The rate of Hawking radiation increases with decreasing mass, eventually causing the black hole to evaporate away until, finally, it explodes. Cosmic rays are particles traveling through space with high energies. Energy events as high as 3. The particle called a muon is a lepton produced in the upper atmosphere by the decay of a pion.

A muon, in turn, can decay to form an electron or positron. Remote observation of electrons requires detection of their radiated energy. For example, in high-energy environments such as the corona of a star, free electrons form a plasma that radiates energy due to Bremsstrahlung radiation. Electron gas can undergo plasma oscillation , which is waves caused by synchronized variations in electron density, and these produce energy emissions that can be detected by using radio telescopes.

The frequency of a photon is proportional to its energy. As a bound electron transitions between different energy levels of an atom, it absorbs or emits photons at characteristic frequencies. For instance, when atoms are irradiated by a source with a broad spectrum, distinct dark lines appear in the spectrum of transmitted radiation in places where the corresponding frequency is absorbed by the atom's electrons. Each element or molecule displays a characteristic set of spectral lines, such as the hydrogen spectral series.

When detected, spectroscopic measurements of the strength and width of these lines allow the composition and physical properties of a substance to be determined. In laboratory conditions, the interactions of individual electrons can be observed by means of particle detectors , which allow measurement of specific properties such as energy, spin and charge.

This enables precise measurements of the particle properties. For example, in one instance a Penning trap was used to contain a single electron for a period of 10 months. The first video images of an electron's energy distribution were captured by a team at Lund University in Sweden, February The scientists used extremely short flashes of light, called attosecond pulses, which allowed an electron's motion to be observed for the first time.

The distribution of the electrons in solid materials can be visualized by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy ARPES. This technique employs the photoelectric effect to measure the reciprocal space �a mathematical representation of periodic structures that is used to infer the original structure. ARPES can be used to determine the direction, speed and scattering of electrons within the material.

Electron beams are used in welding. This welding technique must be performed in a vacuum to prevent the electrons from interacting with the gas before reaching their target, and it can be used to join conductive materials that would otherwise be considered unsuitable for welding. Electron-beam lithography EBL is a method of etching semiconductors at resolutions smaller than a micrometer. The last problem limits the resolution to about 10 nm.

For this reason, EBL is primarily used for the production of small numbers of specialized integrated circuits. Electron beam processing is used to irradiate materials in order to change their physical properties or sterilize medical and food products.

Linear particle accelerators generate electron beams for treatment of superficial tumors in radiation therapy. Electron therapy can treat such skin lesions as basal-cell carcinomas because an electron beam only penetrates to a limited depth before being absorbed, typically up to 5 cm for electron energies in the range 5�20 MeV.

An electron beam can be used to supplement the treatment of areas that have been irradiated by X-rays. Particle accelerators use electric fields to propel electrons and their antiparticles to high energies. These particles emit synchrotron radiation as they pass through magnetic fields. The dependency of the intensity of this radiation upon spin polarizes the electron beam�a process known as the Sokolov�Ternov effect.

Synchrotron radiation can also cool the electron beams to reduce the momentum spread of the particles. Electron and positron beams are collided upon the particles' accelerating to the required energies; particle detectors observe the resulting energy emissions, which particle physics studies.

Low-energy electron diffraction LEED is a method of bombarding a crystalline material with a collimated beam of electrons and then observing the resulting diffraction patterns to determine the structure of the material. The required energy of the electrons is typically in the range 20� eV. The electron microscope directs a focused beam of electrons at a specimen. Some electrons change their properties, such as movement direction, angle, and relative phase and energy as the beam interacts with the material.

Microscopists can record these changes in the electron beam to produce atomically resolved images of the material. This wavelength, for example, is equal to 0. However, electron microscopes are expensive instruments that are costly to maintain.

Two main types of electron microscopes exist: transmission and scanning. Transmission electron microscopes function like overhead projectors , with a beam of electrons passing through a slice of material then being projected by lenses on a photographic slide or a charge-coupled device. Scanning electron microscopes rasteri a finely focused electron beam, as in a TV set, across the studied sample to produce the image. The scanning tunneling microscope uses quantum tunneling of electrons from a sharp metal tip into the studied material and can produce atomically resolved images of its surface.

In the free-electron laser FEL , a relativistic electron beam passes through a pair of undulators that contain arrays of dipole magnets whose fields point in alternating directions. The electrons emit synchrotron radiation that coherently interacts with the same electrons to strongly amplify the radiation field at the resonance frequency. FEL can emit a coherent high- brilliance electromagnetic radiation with a wide range of frequencies, from microwaves to soft X-rays.

These devices are used in manufacturing, communication, and in medical applications, such as soft tissue surgery. Electrons are important in cathode ray tubes , which have been extensively used as display devices in laboratory instruments, computer monitors and television sets. However, they have been largely supplanted by solid-state devices such as the transistor. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other uses, see Electron disambiguation. Hydrogen atomic orbitals at different energy levels. The more opaque areas are where one is most likely to find an electron at any given time. See also: History of electromagnetism. See also: The proton�electron model of the nucleus. See also: History of quantum mechanics. Main article: Virtual particle. Main article: Atom.

Electronics portal Physics portal Science portal. See: Gupta Assume that the electron's charge is spread uniformly throughout a spherical volume. Since one part of the sphere would repel the other parts, the sphere contains electrostatic potential energy. Setting them equal and solving for r gives the classical electron radius. See Zombeck In other words, the projections of the spins of all electrons onto their momentum vector have the same sign.

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National Institute of Standards and Technology. Gaithersburg, MD: U. Department of Commerce. This database was developed by J. Baker, M. Douma, and S. Borexino Collaboration Bibcode : PhRvL. PMID S2CID Retrieved 10 September Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 18 July Princeton University Press.

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Introduction to Magnetism and Magnetic Materials. In Rome , the remnant of the system comprises 3 isolated radial routes, not connecting in the ancient city centre, but linked by a ring route.

Some apparently anomalous lines continue in operation where a new line would not on rational grounds be built, because it is much more costly to build a new line than continue operating an existing one. It is planned to open a line linking Hasselt Belgium with Maastricht Netherlands in Tramway track can have different rail profiles to accommodate the various operating environments of the vehicle.

They may be embedded into concrete for street-running operation, or use standard ballasted track with railroad ties on high-speed sections. A more ecological solution is to embed tracks into grass turf. Tramway tracks use a grooved rail with a groove designed for tramway or railway track in pavement or grassed surfaces grassed track or track in a lawn. The rail has the railhead on one side and the guard on the other.

The guard provides accommodation for the flange. The guard carries no weight, but may act as a checkrail. Grooved rail was invented in by Alphonse Loubat , a French inventor who developed improvements in tram and rail equipment, and helped develop tram lines in New York City and Paris.

The invention of grooved rail enabled tramways to be laid without causing a nuisance to other road users, except unsuspecting cyclists, who could get their wheels caught in the groove. The grooves may become filled with gravel and dirt particularly if infrequently used or after a period of idleness and need clearing from time to time, this being done by a "scrubber" tram.

Failure to clear the grooves can lead to a bumpy ride for the passengers, damage to either wheel or rail and possibly derailing. In narrow situations double-track tram lines sometimes reduce to single track, or, to avoid switches , have the tracks interlaced, e.

There is a UK example of interlaced track on the Tramlink , just west of Mitcham Station, where the formation is narrowed by an old landslip causing an obstruction. See photo in Tramlink entry. Historically, the track gauge has had considerable variations, with narrow gauge common in many early systems.

However, most light rail systems are now standard gauge. An important advantage of standard gauge is that standard railway maintenance equipment can be used on it, rather than custom-built machinery.

Using standard gauge also allows light rail vehicles to be delivered and relocated conveniently using freight railways and locomotives.

Another factor favoring standard gauge is that low-floor vehicles are becoming popular, and there is generally insufficient space for wheelchairs to move between the wheels in a narrow gauge layout.

Standard gauge also enables � at least in theory � a larger choice of manufacturers and thus lower procurement costs for new vehicles. However, other factors such as electrification or loading gauge for which there is more variation may require costly custom built units regardless. Tram stops may be similar to bus stops in design and use, particularly in street-running sections, where in some cases other vehicles are legally required to stop clear of the tram doors.

Some stops may resemble to railway platforms , particularly in private right-of-way sections and where trams are boarded at standard railway platform height , as opposed to using steps at the doorway or low-floor trams. Approximately 5, new trams are manufactured each year. As of February , 4, new trams were on order from their makers, with options being open for a further 1, Trams are in a period of growth, with about tram systems operating around the world, 10 or so new systems being opened each year, and many being gradually extended.

In the past 20 years their numbers have been augmented by modern tramway or light rail systems in cities that had discarded this form of transport. There have also been some new tram systems in cities that never previously had them. Tramways with tramcars British English or street railways with streetcars North American English were common throughout the industrialised world in the late 19th and early 20th centuries but they had disappeared from most British, Canadian, French and US cities by the midth century.

By contrast, trams in parts of continental Europe continued to be used by many cities, although there were contractions in some countries, including the Netherlands. Since trams have returned to favour in many places, partly because their tendency to dominate the roadway, formerly seen as a disadvantage, is now considered to be a merit since it raises the visibility of public transport encouraging car users to change their mode of travel , and enables streets to be reconfigured to give more space to pedestrians, making cites more pleasant places to live.

In Milan, Italy, the old " Ventotto " trams are considered by its inhabitants a "symbol" of the city. The same can be said of trams in Melbourne in general, but particularly the iconic W class. The Toronto streetcar system had similarly become an iconic symbol of the city, operating the largest network in the Americas as well as the only large-scale tram system in Canada not including light rail systems, or heritage lines.

Historically, the Paris Tram System was, at its peak, the world's largest system, with 1, km mi of track in [ citation needed ] according to other sources, ca. However it was completely closed in The third largest was Chicago, with over km mi of track, [] but it was all converted to trolleybus and bus services by 21 June Before its decline, the BVG in Berlin operated a very large network with km mi of route. Before its system started to be converted to trolleybus and later bus services in the s last tramway closed 6 July , the first-generation London network had km mi of route in The final line, the Santa teresa route was closed in Petersburg with km mi , USSR, and was included as such in the Guinness World Records ; [ citation needed ] however Saint Petersburg's tram system has declined in size since the fall of the Soviet Union.

Vienna in had km mi , before the expansion of bus services and the opening of a subway Substituting subway services for tram routes continues. As from , the Melbourne system currently recognised as the world's largest took over Sydney's title as the largest network in Australia. In many European cities, much tramway infrastructure was lost in the midth century, though not always on the same scale as in other parts of the world such as North America.

Most of Central and Eastern Europe retained the majority of its tramway systems and it is here that the largest and busiest tram systems in the world are found. Whereas most systems and vehicles in the tram sector are found in Central and Eastern Europe, in the s and s, tram systems were shut down in many places in Western Europe, however urban transportation has been experiencing a sustained long running revival since the s. Many European cities are rehabilitating, upgrading, expanding and reconstructing their old tramway lines and building new tramway lines.

In North America, these vehicles are called "streetcars" or "trolleys" ; the term tram is more likely to be understood as an aerial tramway or a people-mover. Streetcar systems were developed in late 19th to early 20th centuries in a number of cities throughout North America. However, most North American cities saw its streetcar lines removed in the midth century for a variety of financial, technological and social reasons. Toronto currently operates the largest streetcar system in the Americas in terms of track length and ridership.

Operated by the Toronto Transit Commission , the streetcar system is the only large-scale streetcar system existing in Canada, excluding heritage streetcar, or light rail systems that are operated in other Canadian municipalities. The streetcar system was established in , and used a variety of vehicles in its history, including horse-drawn streetcars, Peter Witt streetcars , the PCC streetcar, and the Canadian Light Rail Vehicle and its articulated counterpart, the Articulated Light Rail Vehicle.

Since 29 December , [] the system exclusively uses the Flexity Outlook made by Bombardier Transportation. However, Canadian cities excluding Toronto, removed their streetcar systems in the midth century. In the late s and early s, light rail systems were introduced in Calgary and Edmonton; with another light rail system established in Ottawa in There is now something of a renaissance for light railways in mid-sized cities with Waterloo, Ontario the first to come on line and construction underway in Mississauga, Ontario.

In the late 20th century, several Canadian locales restored portions of their defunct streetcar lines, operating them as a heritage feature for tourists. Pittsburgh had kept most of its streetcar system serving the city and many suburbs, making it the longest-lasting large-network streetcar system in the United States.

In the late 20th century, several cities installed modern light rail systems, in part along the same corridors as their old streetcars systems, the first of these being the San Diego Trolley in San Diego in In the s, some cities in the United States brought back streetcars lines, including Memphis , Tampa , and Little Rock ; However, these streetcar systems were designed as heritage streetcar lines, and used vintage or replica-vintage vehicles.

The first "second-generation streetcar systems" in North America was opened in Portland in They are typically powered and will accept plastic figures inside. Common manufacturers are Roco and Lima , with many custom models being made as well. Bowser Manufacturing has produced white metal models for over 50 years. Many of these run on O scale trams are also very popular among tram modellers because the increased size allows for more detail and easier crafting of overhead wiring.

In the US these models are usually purchased in epoxy or wood kits and some as brass models. The Saint Petersburg Tram Company [] produces highly detailed polyurethane non-powered O Scale models from around the world which can easily be powered by trucks from vendors like Q-Car. It is thought that the first example of a working model tramcar in the UK built by an amateur for fun was in , when Frank E.

The English terms tram and tramway are derived from the Scots word tram , [] referring respectively to a type of truck goods wagon or freight railroad car used in coal mines and the tracks on which they ran.

The word tram probably derived from Middle Flemish trame "beam, handle of a barrow, bar, rung". The identical word la trame with the meaning "crossbeam" is also used in the French language. Etymologists believe that the word tram refers to the wooden beams the railway tracks were initially made of before the railroad pioneers switched to the much more wear-resistant tracks made of iron and, later, steel. Although the terms tram and tramway have been adopted by many languages, they are not used universally in English; North Americans prefer streetcar , trolley , or trolleycar.

The term streetcar is first recorded in , and originally referred to horsecars. When electrification came, Americans began to speak of trolleycars or later, trolleys. A widely held belief holds the word to derive from the troller said to derive from the words traveler and roller , a four-wheeled device that was dragged along dual overhead wires by a cable that connected the troller to the top of the car and collected electrical power from the overhead wires ; [] this portmanteau derivation is, however, most likely folk etymology.

The alternative North American term 'trolley' may strictly speaking be considered incorrect, as the term can also be applied to cable cars, or conduit cars that instead draw power from an underground supply.

Conventional diesel tourist buses decorated to look like streetcars are sometimes called trolleys in the US tourist trolley. Furthering confusion, the term tram has instead been applied to open-sided, low-speed segmented vehicles on rubber tires generally used to ferry tourists short distances, for example on the Universal Studios backlot tour and, in many countries, as tourist transport to major destinations. The term may also apply to an aerial ropeway, e.

Although the use of the term trolley for tram was not adopted in Europe, the term was later associated with the trolleybus , a rubber-tired vehicle running on hard pavement, which draws its power from pairs of overhead wires. These electric buses, which use twin trolley poles, are also called trackless trolleys particularly in the northeastern US , or sometimes simply trolleys in the UK, as well as the Pacific Northwest , including Seattle , and Vancouver.

The New South Wales government in Australia has decided to use the term "light rail" for their trams. Nathan was a passenger by No. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Streetcar. This article is about public transport vehicles running on rails. For other uses of "tram", see Tram disambiguation. For other uses, see Streetcar disambiguation. Street-running light railcar.

Main article: History of trams. Main article: Horsecar. See also: Tram engine and Steam dummy. Main article: Cable car railway. Main article: List of tram systems by gauge and electrification. Main article: Convict tramway. Main article: Types of trams. Main articles: Railway electrification system and Current collector. Main article: Ground-level power supply. Main article: Tramway track. Main article: Tram stop.

Tram stops can range from purpose-built, tram-exclusive facilities left , to simple stops within a public road right. Main articles: Tram and light rail transit systems , List of tram and light rail transit systems , and List of town tramway systems. Countries with tram networks. Countries without tram networks. Main article: List of largest town tramway systems.

Melbourne km; mi [91] Saint Petersburg Dallas Light Rail , [] modern streetcar [] and heritage streetcar [] km; 96 mi Sofia Louis Metropolitan Area 74 km; 46 mi Lviv This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. January Main article: List of town tramway systems in Africa.

Main article: Trams in Asia. See also: Trams in China. Main article: Trams in Europe. Main article: Streetcars in North America. Further information: List of tram accidents. Further information: Trams in popular culture. See also: Rail transport modelling. Transport portal Trains portal. List of town tramway systems List of tram and light rail transit systems List of tram builders List of tram systems by gauge and electrification List of transport museums Tram and light rail transit systems.

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Archived from the original on 6 August Paul ". Archived from the original on 5 March American Public Transportation Association. Archived from the original PDF on 31 January Global News. Retrieved 1 January Toronto Star. Retrieved 8 September That's not happening while a strike at the company's Thunder Bay plant is in its eighth week. Once production resumes, however, Bombardier can accelerate its schedule to three LRVs a month. The two sides are back in bargaining, and Bombardier will discuss a revised delivery schedule with the TTC, he said.

Seeing these beautiful behemoths rolling through Toronto might force us to reconsider the complaint heard over and over that streetcars are forever in the way.

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